Levels and Methods of Participatory Planning

There are various participation methods with varying degrees of stakeholder involvement: provision of information, public hearings, consultations, collaboration in decision-making and delegation of responsibilities. The greater the extent of participation and control over decisions, the smaller the number of stakeholder representatives possible to be engaged in the process. The political, economic, cultural, institutional and legal situations within a given region determine the mechanisms chosen to achieve the desired participation level.



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Figure adapted from van Beek (2004)