Design flood events of river R

Flood events are occurrences of the natural water cycle and appear when great water masses merge over a short period of time. The volume of the water masses does not only affect the maximum water level, but also by the timing of the conjunction. In big catchment areas as in the region of the river Mosel, flood events often occur after rainfalls, which have lasted for several days, in contrast to smaller catchment areas where thunderstorms cause the highest discharge in the summer.

The peak of the water level is accumulatively affected by the factors of vegetation, soil structure, surface features and the watercourse. A high number of those factors causes a slowly increasing water level and discharge whereas a lower number causes a fast, high tide. The accumulation capacity of a watercourse increases if the river spreads out over the banks. Especially vegetation holds back a lot of water and is one of the most effectives reservoirs.

All design flood events for an annual probability during the next 200 years are listed in table the above. In order to simulate these events the non-uniform discharge along the longitudinal profile is used. Towards a cross section upstream of an inflow, the discharge is reduced.

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