S-P-R-C model


The risk of flooding may be regarded as the product of the consequence and probability of flooding and also includes an alternative perspective that considers the vulnerability of the flooded area and the exposure of the receptor to the risk. This may be envisaged using a Source- Pathway- Receptor- Consequence (SPRC) model, where:

  • the source is the origin of the flood (e.g. rainfall, rivers),
  • the pathway is the way in which the flood is transmitted (i.e. runoff from urban surfaces)
  • and the receptor is what is affected by the flooding (the properties, people or habitats on the flood plain).

The flood water will propagate to the receptor, where the flood will have consequences for the receptor in dependence on the vulnerability of the receptor and the intensity of exposure.


Flood management has many options to reduce the flood risk through changing any of the four elements (Source, Pathway, Receptor, Consequence) of risk generation. Whereas the flood management measures which are concerned with the source and pathway are called `Flood Probability Reduction Measures`. On the contrary the mitigation measures which are concerned with the receptor are called `Flood Resilience Maesures`.

For more information about the two flood management measures please select the topic in the picture by clicking on the associated part.

Flood Probability Reduction Measures Flood Resilience Measures






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Introduction to Flood Risk Management

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Source- Pathway- Receptor- Consequence (SPRC) model