Hydrology of Floods


Hydrology of floods deals with questions of time- and space-dependent processes of waters and is focused on hydraulic engineering aspects of floods.

Hydrological modelling is concerned with the simulation of the circuit of water movement from the atmosphere to the earth and return considering various aspects like precipitation, runoff, evaporation and condensation.

The hydrologic cycle is the fundamental principle of hydrology. It is the idealized form of water circulation and its recycling on earth. Water cycle is a continuous process by which water is transported from the oceans to the atmosphere, to land and back to the sea.

This is expressed in the water balance equation:


Hydrologic cycle

The concept, that the water cycle is a closed system, is the simplification of the real processes in the nature. The hydrologic cycle is made up of many different factors, as a result, it can become quite complicated when trying to analyse the relationships between those factors. The figure beside schematically illustrates various directions of water movement in atmosphere and soil.

A complete mathematical description of the hydrological processes is one of the most difficult tasks in engineering and natural sciences and has not been completely solved yet. It comprises the setting up of a integral model system, in which the components such as global climate model, surface runoff model and groundwater model of saturated and unsaturated soil layers are coupled together.

Considering the fact, that in each of those model components, there are still unexplained physical processes and lots of natural processes are the small-scale ones, this simplification of the hydrologic cycle becomes reasonable.

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