Infiltration rates mostly depend on the soil type, surface cover, actual water content and surface structure.
Pore distribution in the soil
It is possible to distinguish between 2 types of pores:
Macro(equivalent radius > 3mm)
Micro (capillary system)
Macro pores are important for the infiltration process since water percolates 100-400 times faster through macro pores than through the micro ones.
As it can be observe in the Linear Function of soil moisture, Cinf determines the rate of infiltration. The higher values for Cinf are, the smaller portion of precipitation is converted into overland flow.
The potential Infiltration capacity curve of the soil Infp is defined as:
Effect of surface structure on infiltration
Where the actual infiltration “Inf” depends on the intensity of the rainfall and percolation rate of the soil layers.