Glossary G - I


The processes of decision making and implementation.

Source: FLOODsite


Control points slowing the flow of water.

Source: FLOWS, Cambrigeshire County Council, 2006).

gGEP - water-related development plan

gGEP stands for the German Gewässer bezogener Gebietsentwicklungsplan (water related development plan) and means a plan which covers a river basin or sub basin and includes adjusted measures for water management and spatial planning to realise flood mitigation or at least flood neutral development.

Source: FLOWS


GIS is the abbreviation for Geographic Information System. GIS is a computer hardware and software system designed to collect, manipulate, analyse, and display spatially referenced data for solving complex resource, environmental and social problems. GIS are especially useful in management planning and land-use decisions on a landscape scale.

Source: FLOWS

Green Roofs

Vegetated roofs that reduce the volume and rate of runoff and remove pollution.

Source: Tourbier/White (2007)

Seedum planting for water retention on roofs.

Source: FLOWS, Cambridgeshire County Council, 2006


A physical event, phenomenon or human activity with the potential to result in harm. A hazard does not necessarily lead to harm.

Source: FLOODsite

Hazards can include latent conditions that may represent future threats and can have different origins: natural (geological, hydrometeorological and biological) or induced by human processes (environmental degradation and technological hazards). Hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects. Each hazard is characterised by its location, intensity, frequency and probability.


The probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon.

Source: ITC (2004

Potential source of harm.

Source: ISO/EC (1999

Situation with the potential to cause harm. A hazard does not necessarily lead to harm.

Source: HR Wallingford (2002)

A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

Source: ISDR (2004

Hazard awareness

Flood hazard awareness describes the notion, the understanding of dangers that can emerge from a flood. Thus it is essential for self-protection, as it implies hazard-adapted behaviour. It is also seen as precondition for flood protection measures and their endurance or sustainability. Hazard awareness normally evolves from experience of the adverse effects, consequential to a hazard.


Hazard map

Hazard maps show the extent of flood prone areas considering hydrodynamic impacts on buildings, infrastructure and environment and considering the variability of magnitudes of the expected events. Different zones are designated classifying the intensity of danger related to the probability of occurrences.

Source: FLOWS

Hazard mapping

Hazard mapping is a process or activity which aims to establish geographically where and to what extent particular phenomena are likely to pose a threat to people, property, infrastructure, and economic activities. Hazard mapping represents the output of hazard analysis on a map.

Source: FLOWS

Hydraulic modelling

Hydraulic models are based on calculation techniques, which solve mathematical or physical equations to simulate water systems and make projections relating to water levels, flows and velocities. Hydraulic modelling is the simulation activity.

Source: FLOWS

Hydrological modelling

Calculation / simulation of the circuit of water movement from the atmosphere to the earth and return considering various aspects like precipitation, runoff, evaporation and condensation.

Source: Chow, Handbook Applied hydrology, 1964

Infiltration devices

Sub-surface structures to promote the infiltration of surface water to ground. They can be trenches, basins or soakaways.

Source: Tourbier/White (2007)

Institutional uncertainty

Inadequate collaboration and/or trust among institutions, potentially due to poor communication, lack of understanding, overall bureaucratic culture, conflicting sub-cultures, traditions and missions.

Source: FLOODsite

Integrated risk management

An approach to risk management that embraces all sources, pathways and receptors of risk and considers combinations of structural and non-structural solutions.

Source: FLOODsite

Integrated water resource management

IWRM is a process which promotes the co-ordinated management and development of water, land and related resources, in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.

Source: FLOODsite

Interactive learning group

Interactive learning can be defined as the learning that occurs when individuals advance their understanding through dialogue. The individuals can be groups of learners working together, single learners engaged with a tutor or interactive computer, and groups of learners interacting with one or more experts. Transferred to FLOWS project several workshops have been realised to effect interactive learning based on D. Kolb's Theory on Experiental Learning.

Source: FLOWS

(Flood) Inundation map

Maps that present the water level and area prone to flooding. In some European countries it is connected with a given return period. As for instance; 10 years floods, 50 years floods, 100 years floods etc.

Source: FLOWS

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